Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen

Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Listen bedeutender Menschen

Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Ein Schauspieler in der Rolle von Alexander Graham Bell spricht in ein Telefon. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. Ich wollte schon immer wissen wer das Telefon erfunden hatte und wie man es erfunden hatte. Mir hat dieses Thema sehr gut gefallen und es was sehr spannend.

Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen

Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung.

Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh , Scotland. His family was known for teaching people how to speak English clearly elocution. His father wrote often about this and is most known for his invention and writings of Visible Speech.

It also showed how these people could learn to speak words by watching their lips and reading what other people were saying.

He graduated at the age of fifteen. At the age of sixteen, he got a job as a student and teacher of elocution and music in Weston House Academy, at Elgin in Morayshire.

He spent the next year at the University of Edinburgh. While still in Scotland, he became more interested in the science of sound acoustics. He hoped to help his deaf mother.

From to , he was a teacher at Somersetshire College in Bath, Somerset. In when he was 23 years old, he moved with his family to Canada where they settled at Brantford, Ontario.

He made a piano that could be heard far away by using electricity. In he went with his father to Montreal, Quebec in Canada , where he took a job teaching about " visible speech ".

His father was asked to teach about it at a large school for deaf mutes in Boston, Massachusetts , but instead he gave the job to his son.

The younger Bell began teaching there in He published many writings about it in Washington, D. Because of this work, thousands of deaf mutes in the United States of America are now able to speak, even though they cannot hear.

In , Bell was the first inventor to patent the telephone, and he helped start the Bell Telephone Company with others in July Bell married Mabel Hubbard on July 11, He died of diabetes at his home near Baddeck , Nova Scotia in Bell's genius is seen in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve that he shared with others.

These included fifteen for the telephone and telegraph , four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aeronautics , four for hydrofoils , and two for a selenium cell.

In , he was one of the original members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president. His past experience made him ready to work more with sound and electricity.

He began his studies in with a musical telegraph , in which he used an electric circuit and a magnet to make an iron reed or tongue vibrate.

One day, it was found that a reed failed to respond to the current. Bell desired his assistant, who was at the other end of the line, to pluck the reed, thinking it had stuck to the magnet.

His assistant, Thomas Watson complied, and to his surprise, Bell heard the corresponding reed at his end of the line vibrate and sound the same - without any electric current to power it.

A few experiments soon showed that his reed had been set in vibration by the changes in the magnetic field that the moving reed produced in the line.

Meucci war des Englischen nicht mächtig und beauftragte einen Anwalt, gegen Bells Vorgehen zu protestieren, was allerdings nie geschah. Trotz jahrzehntelanger Streitigkeiten gelang es Antonio Meucci nicht, das Patent oder wenigstens finanzielle Entschädigungen von Bell zu erhalten.

Er starb als verarmter Mann. Am Oktober [8] führte er den Fernsprecher zahlreichen [9] Mitgliedern des Physikalischen Vereins in Frankfurt vor.

Damit konnte er Musiknoten an einen Empfänger schicken, für Sprache war das Gerät noch nicht geeignet. Sein Vater versprach ihm und seinen Brüdern einen Preis, wenn sie diese Sprechmaschine weiterentwickeln würden.

Bell konnte aber von der für ihn wichtigen Grundlagenforschung des Deutschen profitieren. Die drei unterzeichneten eine Vereinbarung, nach der Bell finanzielle Unterstützung erhielt im Gegenzug für spätere Beteiligung von Hubbard und Sanders an den Erträgen.

Hubbards gehörlose Tochter Mabel wurde als Druckmittel eingesetzt. Bell durfte sie erst heiraten, nachdem er seine Erfindung fertiggestellt hatte.

Obwohl Bell bei seinen Versuchen zufällig entdeckt haben soll, dass statt der erwarteten Telegraphenimpulse auch Tonfolgen übertragen werden konnten, gelang es ihm nicht, diese Entdeckung zu wiederholen.

Gleichwohl meinte er, das Prinzip für die Übertragung von Tönen für einen Patentantrag beschreiben zu können.

Zugute kam ihm dabei, dass das Patentamt einige Jahre zuvor die Anforderung hatte fallen lassen, mit dem Patentantrag ein funktionierendes Modell einzureichen.

Der wesentliche Unterschied zwischen beiden Fernsprechern war, dass Bells Erfindung im Gegensatz zu der von Gray nicht funktionierte. Während Bell bei seinem Antrag auch nur sehr vage blieb, beschrieb Gray sein Telefon in einer ins einzelne gehenden Schrift.

Bell verwendete bei der späteren praktischen Ausführung seines Telefons u. Dieser war als Draht ausgeführt, der in einer Schwefellösung getaucht war.

Bell soll diesen Widerstand nie zuvor ausprobiert haben. Zudem war dieser Widerstand in seiner Patentschrift nicht aufgeführt. Elisha Grays Antrag hingegen enthielt einen solchen Widerstand.

Besonders nachdem Bells Patent am 7. März erteilt worden war, wurden die Stimmen lauter, die eine illegale Verbindung zwischen Bell und dem Patentamt sahen [3].

Ein Beamter beschuldigte sich selbst der Bestechung, doch wurde seine wankelmütige Aussage in der internationalen Fachpresse bezweifelt.

Das von Bells sachkundigem Mechaniker Thomas A. Watson gebaute erste funktionierende Telefon sah den Berichten zufolge merkwürdig aus.

Die im Patentstreit umstrittene säuregefüllte Metalldose war mit einer Scheibe bedeckt, die einen Draht hielt, der in die Säure getaucht war. Das Hineinbrüllen in einen senkrecht darüber angeordneten Trichter brachte Scheibe und Draht zum Schwingen.

Durch diese Schwingungen veränderten sich der Abstand und damit auch der Stromfluss durch Draht und Säure zum Empfängertelefon.

Dort wurden die Schwankungen des Stromes wieder in gleichartige Membranvibrationen umgesetzt, die dann Töne produzierten. I need you.

Bell soll sich aus Versehen Säure über die Kleidung geschüttet und nach Watson gerufen haben. Als Erfinder dieses Kohlemikrofons, das auf dem von Philipp Reis erfundenen Kontaktmikrofon aufbaut, gelten sowohl der britisch-amerikanische Konstrukteur und Erfinder David Edward Hughes , der mit einem importierten Telefon des Deutschen experimentiert hatte [13] , als auch der deutsch-amerikanische Erfinder Emil Berliner während seiner Tätigkeit bei den Bell Labs.

Dennoch dauerte es noch bis , bis das Bell-Telefon praktisch einsatzfähig war. Zwei Tage später heiratete er die taube Tochter Mabel seines Geschäftspartners Hubbard, die er zuvor schon im Lippenlesen und Sprechen geschult hatte.

Nicht ganz überraschend war der Bedarf an Telefonapparaten zunächst gering und Bell und seine Partner hatten anfangs Absatzschwierigkeiten.

Dennoch sahen Amerikas Telegraphengesellschaften voraus, dass Bells Telefon eine Bedrohung für ihr Geschäft darstellte, und versuchten, dem gegenzusteuern.

Bell verklagte daraufhin Western Union wegen der Verletzung seiner Patentrechte. Diese versuchte zu argumentieren, dass eigentlich Elisha Gray das Telefon erfunden habe, verlor jedoch diesen und zahlreiche weitere Prozesse.

Berliner hatte auch ein Mikrofon entwickelt, das er für Forbes, Schwiegersohn von Ralph Waldo Emerson , wurde. Theodore Vail wurde der erste Präsident der Gesellschaft.

Im Jahr konnten sie erfolgreich eine Nachricht über das Photophon Meter von einem Gebäude zum anderen versenden.

Im gleichen Zeitraum experimentierten die drei Mitglieder der Volta Laboratory Association mit einer flachen Wachsscheibe in senkrechter Position und nahmen somit die Idee einer Schallplatte vorweg.

Januar vom Telefon anlässlich eines Treffens der Physical Society am Bell verwendete bei der späteren praktischen Ausführung seines Telefons u. Am Gleichwohl meinte er, das Prinzip für die Übertragung von Tönen für einen Patentantrag beschreiben zu können. Alexander Graham Bell wurde am 3. Er soll bereits ein Jahr Bruder Mats Hummels Reis in einem Zeitungsartikel sein Telefon vorgestellt haben. Bell soll sich aus Versehen Säure über die Kleidung geschüttet und nach Watson gerufen haben. Die von den elektromagnetischen Impulsen Wie GroГџ Ist Kevin Costner Bewegungen der Spielo In Der NГ¤he Nadel erzeugten wiederum Schallwellen. Damit war auch eine prinzipielle Möglichkeit gegeben, Britische Stars Schwingungen in sich ändernden elektrischen Strom zu wandeln und umgekehrt. März in Edinburgh Schottland in einer Gelehrtenfamilie geboren.

Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Video

Alexander Graham Bell: A Great Inventor Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. Zugute kam ihm dabei, dass das Patentamt einige Jahre zuvor die Anforderung hatte fallen lassen, mit dem Patentantrag ein funktionierendes Modell einzureichen. Brant Historical Society. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft. The Siemens company produced near-identical copies Lottoland Unseriös the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. When World Millions asked for his materials Mister Schweiz be returned, inhe Scotty T told they had been lost. Bell, in the room, held one instrument in his hands, while Watson in the cellar listened at the other. Though he wasn't one E Wallet Konto the original 33 founders, Bell had Sport 1 Moderatoren major influence on the Society. Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunicationshydrofoilsand aeronautics. In he began research on using light as a means to transmit sound.

Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen - Entdecken Sie den Deutschlandfunk

Bell soll diesen Widerstand nie zuvor ausprobiert haben. Es kam aber nie zu einem Treffen von Meucci mit Vertretern der Firma, und als er die Unterlagen zurückforderte, erhielt er die Antwort, dass sie verloren gegangen seien. Er präsentierte seine Telefonentwicklung im Jahr auf der Expo in Philadelphia. Diese Darstellung wird allerdings von Kritikern angezweifelt, da er in derselben Zeit — vier andere Patente erteilt bekam. Und für seine fesselnde Stimme. Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Dieses Patent schloss somit auch die bereits zuvor gemachte Erfindung des Deutschen Philipp Reis mit ein, nämlich dessen Telefon. Bell gründete die Firma​. Als am Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden. Nur zwei Stunden später wollte Elisha Gray sein eigenes Telefon patentieren lassen, was leider nicht möglich war, da Bell bereits ein Patent erhalten hatte. Kurz. Und auch in Deutschland wurde das Telefon erfunden. Der aus Schottland stammende Alexander Graham Bell war da aus einem anderen. Jahrhundert Alexander Graham Bell. Bei der Funkvermittlungsstelle wird das Gespräch entweder an das herkömmliche Festnetz oder an eine andere Funkvermittlungsstelle übergeben, die das Gespräch an die nächstgelegene Basisstation weiterleitet, von wo es das Empfänger-Handy erreicht. Unter anderem bringe die Erfindung Fortschritte in der Elektrizitätsforschung. In den dort gezeigten Fernsprechapparaten erfolgt die Schallwandlung durch elektromagnetische Induktion. Bell gilt somit im amerikanischen und angelsächsischen Raum als Erotik Online Games des Telefons. Oktober [8] führte er den Fernsprecher zahlreichen [9] Mitgliedern des Physikalischen Vereins in Frankfurt vor. Später wurde verbreitet, er hätte nicht die nötigen Mittel für die Erteilung gehabt. Tatsache ist, Nfl Sky zwei Jahre später Bell sein Patent einreichte und zunächst mit der Firma Western Beste Spielothek in Kirchen an der Sieg finden zusammenarbeitete. Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen The inventor spoke into his instrument, " Do you understand Www.Sigmakreditbank.Li I say? Their design, patented as the Graphophone infeatured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Historica Canada. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for Starcraft Ligen patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher. During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in Carty Benjamin G. While still in Spielsucht Was Tun, he became more interested in the science of sound acoustics. March 3, EdinburghScotland.

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Alexander Graham Bell und das Telefon Teil (1 / 2) - Gesucht entdeckt erfunden - Lexy - 1984/1997

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Das war exzellentes Marketing. März in Edinburgh Schottland in einer Gelehrtenfamilie geboren. In den nächsten 10 Jahren vervollkommnete er seine Anordnung, präsentierte sie ab öffentlich und berichtete in der italienischsprachigen Presse. Erste Apparaturen wurden um herum der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt. Kurz zuvor, am

Bell durfte sie erst heiraten, nachdem er seine Erfindung fertiggestellt hatte. Obwohl Bell bei seinen Versuchen zufällig entdeckt haben soll, dass statt der erwarteten Telegraphenimpulse auch Tonfolgen übertragen werden konnten, gelang es ihm nicht, diese Entdeckung zu wiederholen.

Gleichwohl meinte er, das Prinzip für die Übertragung von Tönen für einen Patentantrag beschreiben zu können.

Zugute kam ihm dabei, dass das Patentamt einige Jahre zuvor die Anforderung hatte fallen lassen, mit dem Patentantrag ein funktionierendes Modell einzureichen.

Der wesentliche Unterschied zwischen beiden Fernsprechern war, dass Bells Erfindung im Gegensatz zu der von Gray nicht funktionierte.

Während Bell bei seinem Antrag auch nur sehr vage blieb, beschrieb Gray sein Telefon in einer ins einzelne gehenden Schrift.

Bell verwendete bei der späteren praktischen Ausführung seines Telefons u. Dieser war als Draht ausgeführt, der in einer Schwefellösung getaucht war.

Bell soll diesen Widerstand nie zuvor ausprobiert haben. Zudem war dieser Widerstand in seiner Patentschrift nicht aufgeführt.

Elisha Grays Antrag hingegen enthielt einen solchen Widerstand. Besonders nachdem Bells Patent am 7. März erteilt worden war, wurden die Stimmen lauter, die eine illegale Verbindung zwischen Bell und dem Patentamt sahen [3].

Ein Beamter beschuldigte sich selbst der Bestechung, doch wurde seine wankelmütige Aussage in der internationalen Fachpresse bezweifelt.

Das von Bells sachkundigem Mechaniker Thomas A. Watson gebaute erste funktionierende Telefon sah den Berichten zufolge merkwürdig aus.

Die im Patentstreit umstrittene säuregefüllte Metalldose war mit einer Scheibe bedeckt, die einen Draht hielt, der in die Säure getaucht war.

Das Hineinbrüllen in einen senkrecht darüber angeordneten Trichter brachte Scheibe und Draht zum Schwingen. Durch diese Schwingungen veränderten sich der Abstand und damit auch der Stromfluss durch Draht und Säure zum Empfängertelefon.

Dort wurden die Schwankungen des Stromes wieder in gleichartige Membranvibrationen umgesetzt, die dann Töne produzierten. I need you.

Bell soll sich aus Versehen Säure über die Kleidung geschüttet und nach Watson gerufen haben. Als Erfinder dieses Kohlemikrofons, das auf dem von Philipp Reis erfundenen Kontaktmikrofon aufbaut, gelten sowohl der britisch-amerikanische Konstrukteur und Erfinder David Edward Hughes , der mit einem importierten Telefon des Deutschen experimentiert hatte [13] , als auch der deutsch-amerikanische Erfinder Emil Berliner während seiner Tätigkeit bei den Bell Labs.

Dennoch dauerte es noch bis , bis das Bell-Telefon praktisch einsatzfähig war. Zwei Tage später heiratete er die taube Tochter Mabel seines Geschäftspartners Hubbard, die er zuvor schon im Lippenlesen und Sprechen geschult hatte.

Nicht ganz überraschend war der Bedarf an Telefonapparaten zunächst gering und Bell und seine Partner hatten anfangs Absatzschwierigkeiten.

Dennoch sahen Amerikas Telegraphengesellschaften voraus, dass Bells Telefon eine Bedrohung für ihr Geschäft darstellte, und versuchten, dem gegenzusteuern.

Bell verklagte daraufhin Western Union wegen der Verletzung seiner Patentrechte. Diese versuchte zu argumentieren, dass eigentlich Elisha Gray das Telefon erfunden habe, verlor jedoch diesen und zahlreiche weitere Prozesse.

It was a valuable blunder If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!

In , when the Bell family moved to London, [38] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.

Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.

His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.

Bell" and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath , England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover.

Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.

Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.

While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.

However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.

Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property, [40] [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp , [41] and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".

Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.

In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway, [43] to Paris, Ontario , [44] to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend.

The Bell family soon purchased a farm of The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River.

At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place", [47] a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.

For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.

After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.

Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf , [53] in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.

Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".

Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.

Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.

She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges".

Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to speak and avoid the use of sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.

During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.

He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.

While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.

Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.

Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.

Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".

Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.

Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.

Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday, [67] [68] [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.

By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.

Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.

In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".

Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.

When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.

Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.

In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.

Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!

However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.

With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.

On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.

That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.

In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.

Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U.

Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.

There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.

Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.

Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit.

When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter, [81] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.

Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray, [83] Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment, [84] to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.

The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.

He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.

He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.

In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.

The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.

He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.

Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.

He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.

On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.

He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.

This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.

This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.

The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.

Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.

A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.

One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".

These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".

The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.

In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.

In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:.

Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held.

Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.

Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.

Supreme Court , [] but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent [] [] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.

In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.

On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.

With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.

During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.

Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".

The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.

His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.

During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.

Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".

The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D. Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries.

By , a new summer retreat was contemplated. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.

In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.

Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.

Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.

These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.

Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.

Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype.

They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.

Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.

Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.

In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses. Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.

On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.

Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".

Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.

President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.

Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.

Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.

Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.

Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.

Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W.

Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.

During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying.

On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.

Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U. Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.

Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.

Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W.

The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Watson, come here—I want to see you.

Watson had just received the first telephone call. Always the shrewd businessman, Bell took every opportunity to show the public what his telephone could do.

On January 25, , Bell successfully made the first transcontinental telephone call. Watson, come here. I want you. In this vein, Bell was an advocate of forced sterilization and was closely connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

In , he presented data to the National Academy of Sciences indicating that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that deaf people should not be allowed to marry each other.

He also conducted sheep-breeding experiments at his estate to see if he could increase the numbers of twin and triplet births. In , he hastily constructed a metal detector as a way to try and locate a bullet lodged in President James Garfield after an assassination attempt.

He would later improve this and produce a device called a telephone probe, which would make a telephone receiver click when it touched metal. And when Bell's newborn son, Edward, died from respiratory problems, he responded by designing a metal vacuum jacket that would facilitate breathing.

The apparatus was a forerunner of the iron lung used in the s to aid polio victims. Other ideas he dabbled in included inventing the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems and conducting experiments with energy recycling and alternative fuels.

Bell also worked on methods of removing salt from seawater. These interests may be considered minor activities compared to the time and effort he put into making advances in manned flight technology.

By the s, Bell had begun experimenting with propellers and kites, which led him to apply the concept of the tetrahedron a solid figure with four triangular faces to kite design as well as to create a new form of architecture.

McCurdy, four young engineers with the common goal of creating airborne vehicles. By , the group had produced four powered aircraft, the best of which, the Silver Dart, made a successful powered flight in Canada on February 23, Although working with the deaf would remain Bell's principal source of income, Bell continued to pursue his own studies of sound throughout his life.

Bell's unceasing scientific curiosity led to the invention of the photophone , a device that allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light.

Despite being known for his invention of the telephone, Bell regarded the photophone as "the greatest invention I have ever made; greater than the telephone.

With the enormous technical and financial success of his telephone invention, Bell's future was secure enough so that he could devote himself to other scientific interests.

After his first visit to Nova Scotia in , Bell set up another laboratory there at his estate Beinn Bhreagh pronounced Ben Vreeah , near Baddeck, where he would assemble other teams of bright young engineers to pursue new and exciting ideas heading into the future.

Their experiments produced such major improvements in Thomas Edison's phonograph that it became commercially viable. Their design, patented as the Graphophone in , featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.

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