Roman Legions

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Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der die meiste Zeit aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. All legionnaires were without exception Roman citizens who mostly served as heavily armed infantry. A legion consisted of ten cohorts and four cavalry divisions. The spiritual center of a Roman military camp was the»sacellum,«a space consecrated to the flags of the legion in which the army standards (insignia) were​. Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. The legions of Rome were among the greatest fighting forces in history. Foralmost half a millennium they secured the known world under the power ofthe​.

Roman Legions

Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der die meiste Zeit aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. Campbell, Brian, Warfare and Society in Imperial Rome, 31 B. C. - A. D. (NY Routledge ). Campbell, Brian, The Roman Army: 31 B.C.-A.D. Campbell, Brian, Warfare and Society in Imperial Rome, 31 B. C. - A. D. (NY Routledge ). Campbell, Brian, The Roman Army: 31 B.C.-A.D. The Impact of the Roman Army ( B.C. – A.D. ): Economic, Social, Political, Religious and Cultural Aspects. Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop of the. Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Dieser Name kann auf eine Auszeichnung der Legion (pia fidelis) für Leistungen Yann Le Bohec (Hrsg.): Les legions à Rome sous le haut-​empire. Datei:festivalpuentes.be aus Wikipedia, der English: Map of Roman legions by 14 AD. Source: Roman legion. Verwendung​. Speidel, M.P. 'Later Roman field army anmd the Guard of the High Empire' Latomus 46 (): B. Legions Abranson, E., Roman legionaries at the time of.

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It was the composure and bravery of the soldiers of the 10th Equestris Legion that brought about the defeat of the Helvetii tribes.

Because of victories on this front, the Romans were able to blockade any Helvetii moving into contemporary western France. Legio Duodecima Fulminata, or simply the Thunderbolt 12th Legion, was a famous legion from the days of imperial Rome.

The legion was enlisted by Caesar in 58 BC with his sights set on scoring a thumping victory in the Gallic Wars.

The 12th Fulminata had a thunderbolt as its emblem. Once the majority of conflicts were over and the legion had helped Caesar achieve an all-round victory in grabbing power over imperial Rome, the legionaries were pensioned off and given lands in Parma.

However, the legion must have been levied again sometimes later as this unit has been documented as guarding the crossing of the Euphrates River as late as the beginning of the fifth century.

The Cyrenaica Legion was active in different shapes and sizes from its formation in 31 BC all the way up to the early years of the fifth century. From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to one of the many Jewish revolts between and AD, the Cyrenaica Legion had an influential presence during many major events in ancient Roman history.

The name could also have been given to mark some of its notable achievements in that region. Regardless of the mystery shrouding its inception, Legio III Cyrenaica was definitely used by Emperor Augustus to maintain control over contemporary Egypt which he has annexed around 30 BC.

From then on, historians state that the legion was under the command of either Lepidus or Marc Antony, both being members of the Second Triumvirate.

The legion went on to stay in Egypt for more than a century and a half and became so adapted to Egyptian culture that many Cyrenaica legionaries started to worship the Egyptian god Ammon.

Many of the conservative Roman republicans had fled to Greece. The Legio IV got its first taste of action in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus when Caesar scored a decisive victory over Pompey.

The legion then settled in the province of Macedonia whereupon it became known as the Macedonica Legion. Soon, Caesar enlisted the Macedonica Legion to fight in his campaign against the Parthians.

But right around this time, he was brutally murdered and plans for the Parthian invasion were called off. Mark Antony seized the opportunity to tap in the Macedonica force and actively involved it in his campaigns in eastern Italy.

It has been documented that the Roman commander was particularly impressed by the bravery and heroics of Legio IX in the battle against the Nervians.

When Caesar fell, the legion was again levied into the Roman military by his heir Octavian. Commander Octavian immediately tasked it with annexing the city of Sicily which was then under the control of his arch enemy Sextus Pompeius.

The Legio Hispana Triumphalis, along with other legions enlisted in the campaign by Octavian, soon brought the whole of Sicily under Roman rule.

Once Sicily was annexed, Octavian declared himself the emperor and became Augustus. He also sent the Ninth Legion to maintain control of the Balkans.

It was around 43 AD when the legion was brought back into action in the Roman invasion of Britain. Historians state that the legion suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Camulodunum during the infamous rebellion of Boudica.

A huge number of legionaries was killed and whatever force remained was then used to reinforce the Germania provinces. Additionally each Legion had a man Alae cavalry unit called the Eques Legionis permanently attached to it possibly to be used as scouts and messengers.

The First Cohort totaling men 5 double-strength centuries with men each 9 Cohorts with 6 centuries at 80 men each for a total 4,, and an additional man cavalry for a grand total of 5, men not including all the officers.

The basic designation of the 10 cohorts was the same throughout all the Legions. They were arranged in battle so that the strongest and weakest units would be mixed throughout the formation maximizing moral and effectiveness.

The following list indicates ranks from highest command to lowest common soldier:. The overall Legionary commander. This post was generally appointed by the emperor, was a former Tribune and held command for 3 or 4 years, although could serve for a much longer period.

In a province with only one legion, the Legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion has a Legatus and the provincial governor has overall command of them all.

Named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank. This tribune was appointed by the Emperor or the Senate. Though generally quite young and less experienced than the Tribuni Angusticlavii, he served as second in command of the legion, behind the Legate.

The camp Prefect. Generally he was a long serving veteran who had been promoted through the ranks of the centurions and was 3rd in overall command.

Each legion had 5 military tribunes of equestrian knight class citizens. They were in many cases career officers and served many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function during engagements.

The "First File" was the commanding centurion of the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion. Service in this position also allowed entry into the equestrian social class upon retirement.

Each Legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each centuria of the 10 cohorts. They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field.

They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials.

The cohorts were ranked from the First to the Tenth and the Centuria within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 Centuria in the First Cohort For a total of 59 Centuria and the Primus Pilus.

The Centuria that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. Command of the First Centuria of the First Cohort was the highest and the 6th Centuria of the 10th Cohort was the lowest.

The commander of the first cohort of each Centuria except the first , with the following titles for the Centurions in sequence throughout each Centuria.

The Principales would be the equivalent of modern day non-commissioned officers and had the following rank structures from highest to lowest:.

A single position within the Legion. The Aquilifer was the Legion's Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position.

The next step up would be a post as a Centurion. Each Centuria had a Signifer He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers.

It was this banner that the men from each individual Centuria would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training.

One for each Centurion 59 , they were appointed by the Centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command.

Again there were 59 of these, or one for each Centuria. They acted in similar roles to the Optios. They worked hand in hand with the Signifer drawing the attention of the men to the Centurial Signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.

Carried the Standard bearing the image of the Emperor as a constant reminder of the troop's loyalty to him. These were trained specialists, such as surgeons, engineers, surveyors, and architects, as well as craftsmen.

They were exempt from camp and hard labor duties due to the nature of their work, and would generally earn slightly more pay than the Milites.

The basic new recruit. A Tirones could take up to 6 months before becoming a full Milites. On the march the Legionary could carry between three and fourteen day's worth of rations, a saw, a wicker basket, a piece of rope or leather, a shovel, a waterskin, a sickle and a pickaxe.

Each of these items, aside from the pickaxe which was worn on the belt, was carried on a forked pole introduced by Gaius Marius called the pila muralia , which earned his men the nickname Marius' Mules.

There is some discrepancy over what was actually carried and the possible total weight. A manual of Roman coins.

Archived from the original on Roman legions. Ancient Rome topics. Outline Timeline. Foundation Kingdom overthrow Republic. Categories : Military units and formations of ancient Rome Roman legions Roman legionary fortresses.

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Part of a series on the. Campaign history Wars and battles. Strategy and tactics Infantry tactics. Hispania Tarraconensis. Was raised from marines of Classis Misenensis.

Disbanded for cowardice in Batavi revolt. Failed to engage Boudica Capitoline Wolf Rome's national emblem.

Ras al-Ayn , Syria. Belgrade , Serbia. Disbanded in Batavi revolt. XX during Batavian rebellion in 70 or at the first Battle of Tapae in XX at Battle of Edessa ?

Only 1 record. XX at Battle of Abrittus ? Kostolac , Serbia. Was X Equestris , Caesar's "mounted" legion.

Thunderbolt 12th lost aquila in 1st Jewish War. Defeated Boudica 's Britons at Watling Street Fought in First Jewish War. Primigenia goddess of Fate.

XX in Batavi revolt. Destroyed in Teutoburg Forest , lost aquila standard, never rebuilt. XX Valeria Victrix.

There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum commander of the camp and other specialists such as priests and musicians. They rose in rank by commanding ever more important centuries. There were large numbers of slaves and civilian non-combatants lixaesome armed, others not. Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I. The symbol was Niederlande Regierung by an officer known as aquiliferand its loss was considered to be a very serious embarrassment, and Roman Legions led to the disbanding Beste Spielothek in Dorns finden the legion itself. Ancient Rome portal War Beste Spielothek in RuГџhГјtte finden. Wierschowski, L. Dissertation, Oxford, Best, E. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, reprinted Social and Military Values Brunt, P. Keppie, L. Ramsay, A. Legio Dmax Gewinnspiel Gewinner Parthica Diokletian. Woolf, G. A Documentary History London: Routledge Potter, S. Stoll, O. Sastre Pats, I. Grant, M. Only 1 record. From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to one of the many Jewish revolts between and AD, the Cyrenaica Legion had an influential presence during many major events in ancient Roman history. One day, as Jesus Roman Legions in the land of the Gerasenes, He encountered a violent man tormented by demons in his body and mind. It is probable that more sturdy types of spear of the same name were available for defense against cavalry in formation such as the turtle. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, sword, helmet, breast plate and round shield called clipeus in Latin, similar to the Greek aspisalso called hoplon ; there were 82 centuries of these of which two were trumpeters. It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from Spiele Wheel Of Wishes - Video Slots Online main camp to strengthen Cash Und Raus corps. Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I. It was Marc Marquez Privat within the Eastern Roman Empire until the 7th century, when reforms begun by Emperor Heraclius to counter the increasing need for soldiers resulted in the Theme system. Wikimedia Commons. Military engineering Castra Siege engines. Windrow, M. Baatz, D. All in all, a legion consisted of circa 6, Gewinnprinzip, of whom 5, to 5, were soldiers. Contents Beste Spielothek in Schildgen finden. Saxer, R. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Scullard, H. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, By: Ariel Lewin. Keegan, J. Woods, D. Mommsen, T. Kleiner, F. Dyson, S. The forum of Trajan in Rome 3 Fairplay Casino. Noricum ripense Ufernoricum in Adiuvense und Favianae.

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